Ancient Naukratis: Excavations at a Greek Emporium in Egypt, Part 1: Excavations at Kom Geif

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Herodotus: "Amasis was partial to the Greeks, and among other favors which he granted them, gave to such as liked to settle in Egypt the city of Naucratis for their residence. The earlier date of c. Amasis indeed converted Naucratis into a major treaty-port and commercial link with the west; this was done most likely as a means to contain the Greeks and concentrate their activities in one place under his control. It became not the colony of any particular city-state but an emporion trading post [6] similar to Al Mina , the largest market port of north Syria.

According to Herodotus the walled shrine known as the Hellenion was a co-operative enterprise financed by nine eastern Greek cities:. Naucratis later became an important center of Greek culture under the Roman Empire, producing several celebrated orators of the Second Sophistic in the second and early third centuries AD; the third century writer Athenaeus came from Naucratis. The site was discovered by Flinders Petrie who dug there in , he was followed by Ernest Arthur Gardner , and finally David George Hogarth , in and The archaeological focus fell into two areas of northern and southern quarters.

Found farthest south was a large Egyptian storehouse or treasury A on sketch at right - originally identified by Petrie as the "great temenos " and just north of that a Greek mudbrick Temple of Aphrodite roughly 14m. Directly east of this temple was unearthed a small factory for faience scarab seals. More recently American archaeologists W. Coulson and A. Leonard founded "The Naucratis Project" [9] in carrying out surveys in — and further surveys and excavations to the south of the site from to under the auspices of the American Research Center in Egypt.

Their assessment of the approach taken and methods used by their predecessors was less than complimentary. Consequently our knowledge of the mercantile character of ancient Naukratis - the very facet of its early history that made it so exceptional - has suffered greatly. Furthermore, the later historical sequences, such as the Hellenistic and Roman periods, were almost totally neglected.

Also discouraging to them was the destruction wrought by the local populace on the site. The barrier of the high water table made it impossible for them to find anything older than the Ptolmaic era, they agreed with Hogarth that the "great temenos" of Petrie was actually an Egyptian building and that indeed the entire south section of the town appeared to be non-Greek. Overall most of the finds were vases some whole, most fragmentary used as votives in the temples, but also stone statuettes and scarab seals; these are scattered to museums and collections around the world, the earlier material largely brought to Britain mostly in the British Museum and the later to the Graeco-Roman Museum in Alexandria.

The Egyptians supplied the Greeks with mostly grain but also linen and papyrus while the Greeks bartered mostly silver but also timber , olive oil and wine. Naucratis soon became a profound source of inspiration to the Greeks by re-exposing them to the wonders of Egyptian architecture and sculpture lost to them since the Bronze Age.

Egyptian artifacts soon began their flow along the Greek trade routes finding their way into the homes and workshops of the Ionian Greek world and, via Aegina , the city-states of mainland Greece. Although Greek art and ideas in turn came back the other way their absorption into a largely xenophobic Egyptian culture was strictly minimal.

In terms of our modern understanding of the Greeks, and in particular the early use of their nascent Greek alphabet , the finds of Naucratis have turned out to be foundational. Ernest Gardner considers - apparently on firm grounds - to be the oldest Ionic inscriptions, as well as some in the Korinthian, Melian, and Lesbian alphabets.

Much has also been learned by comparing these alphabets with the forms they assumed a century later, forms that were destined to become universal across the Hellenic world. Naucratis was not only the first Greek settlement in Egypt but also Egypt's most important harbor in antiquity until the rise of Alexandria and the shifting of the Nile led to its decline.

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Herodotus wrote that the prostitutes of Naucratis were "peculiarly alluring" and relates the story of Charaxus, brother of the poet Sappho , who traveled to Naucratis to purchase for a "vast sum" the freedom of one Rhodopis , a bewitchingly beautiful Thracian slave and courtesan. After obtaining her freedom, she set up a house of ill-repute, built up a thriving business and amassed a small fortune; as a measure of thanks, she commissioned an expensive votive offering to the gods, eventually placed at Delphi , which could be seen in the historian's day. He held the first chair of Egyptology in the United Kingdom , excavated many of the most important archaeological sites in Egypt in conjunction with his wife, Hilda Petrie ; some consider his most famous discovery to be that of the Merneptah Stele , an opinion with which Petrie himself concurred.

Petrie developed the system of dating layers based on pottery and ceramic findings. Anne was the daughter of Captain Matthew Flinders. Petrie was raised in a Christian household, was educated at home, he had no formal education. His father taught his son how to survey laying the foundation for his archaeological career.

At the age of eight, he was tutored in French and Greek , until he had a collapse and was taught at home. He ventured his first archaeological opinion aged eight, when friends visiting the Petrie family were describing the unearthing of the Brading Roman Villa in the Isle of Wight ; the boy was horrified to hear the rough shovelling out of the contents, protested that the earth should be pared away, inch by inch, to see all, in it and how it lay. I was in archaeology by nature. Petrie's supporter since , Edwards had instructed, he continued to excavate in Egypt after taking up the professorship, training many of the best archaeologists of the day.

In Petrie sold his large collection of Egyptian antiquities to University College, where it is now housed in the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology. One of his trainees, Howard Carter , went on to discover the tomb of Tutankhamun in In his teenage years, Petrie surveyed British prehistoric monuments in attempts to understand their geometry , his father had corresponded with Piazzi Smyth about his theories of the Great Pyramid and Petrie travelled to Egypt in early to make an accurate survey of Giza , making him the first to properly investigate how they were constructed.

Petrie's published reports of this triangulation survey, his analysis of the architecture of Giza therein, was exemplary in its methodology and accuracy, disproved Smyth's theories and still provides much of the basic data regarding the pyramid plateau to this day. On that visit, he was appalled by the rate of destruction of mummies , he described Egypt as "a house on fire, so rapid was the destruction" and felt his duty to be that of a "salvage man, to get all I could, as as possible and when I was 60, I would sit and write it all. Returning to England at the end of , Petrie wrote a number of articles and met Amelia Edwards and patron of the Egypt Exploration Fund , who became his strong supporter and appointed him as Professor at her Egyptology chair at University College London.

Impressed by his scientific approach, they offered. In November , Petrie arrived in Egypt to begin his excavations, he first went to a New Kingdom site with workmen. He cut out the middle man role of foreman on this and all subsequent excavations, taking complete overall control himself and removing pressure on the workmen from the foreman to discover finds but sloppily.

Though he was regarded as an amateur and dilettante by more established Egyptologists, this made him popular with his workers, who found several small but significant finds that would have been lost under the old system. This site is located 8 miles southeast of Tanis and, among the remains of an ancient temple there, Petrie found a royal sphinx , now located at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. By the end of the Tanis dig, he ran out of funding but, reluctant to leave the country in case it was renewed, he spent cruising the Nile taking photographs as a less subjective record than sketches.

During this time, he climbed rope ladders at Sehel Island near Aswan to draw and photograph thousands of early Egyptian inscriptions on a cliff face, recording embassies to Nubia and wars. By the time he reached Aswan, a telegram had reached there to confirm the renewal of his funding, he went straight to the burial site at Fayum interested in post BC burials, which had not been studied. He found intact tombs and 60 of the famous portraits, discovered from inscriptions on t.

Alexandria Alexandria is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about 32 km along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta makes it vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria is an important industrial center because of its natural oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria is a popular tourist destination. Alexandria was founded around a small, ancient Egyptian town c. Alexandria became an important center of Hellenistic civilization and remained the capital of Ptolemaic Egypt and Roman and Byzantine Egypt for 1, years, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD , when a new capital was founded at Fustat.

Alexandria was at one time the second most powerful city of the ancient Mediterranean region, after Rome. Ongoing maritime archaeology in the harbor of Alexandria, which began in , is revealing details of Alexandria both before the arrival of Alexander, when a city named Rhacotis existed there, during the Ptolemaic dynasty. From the late 18th century, Alexandria became a major center of the international shipping industry and one of the most important trading centers in the world, both because it profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea , the lucrative trade in Egyptian cotton.

Alexander's chief architect for the project was Dinocrates. Alexandria was intended to supersede Naucratis as a Hellenistic center in Egypt, to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile valley.

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Although it has long been believed only a small village there, recent radiocarbon dating of seashell fragments and lead contamination show significant human activity at the location for two millennia preceding Alexandria's founding. Alexandria was the cultural center of the ancient world for some time. The city and its museum attracted many of the greatest scholars, including Greeks and Syrians; the city was plundered and lost its significance. In the early Christian Church , the city was the center of the Patriarchate of Alexandria , one of the major centers of early Christianity in the Eastern Roman Empire.

Just east of Alexandria, there was in ancient times marshland and several islands; as early as the 7th century BC, there existed important port cities of Heracleion. The latter was rediscovered under water. An Egyptian city, Rhakotis existed on the shore and gave its name to Alexandria in the Egyptian language, it continued to exist as the Egyptian quarter of the city. A few months after the foundation, Alexander never returned to his city. After Alexander's departure, his viceroy , continued the expansion. Following a struggle with the other successors of Alexander, his general Ptolemy Lagides succeeded in bringing Alexander's body to Alexandria, though it was lost after being separated from its burial site there.

Although Cleomenes was in charge of overseeing Alexandria's continuous development, the Heptastadion and the mainland quarters seem to have been Ptolemaic work. Inheriting the trade of ruined Tyre and becoming the center of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East, the city grew in less than a generation to be larger than Carthage. In a century, Alexandria had become the largest city in the world and, for some centuries more, was second only to Rome, it became Egypt's main Greek city, with Greek people from diverse backgrounds.

Alexandria was not only a center of Hellenism, but was home to the largest urban Jewish community in the world ; the Septuagint , a Greek version of the Tanakh , was produced there.

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The early Ptolemies kept it in order and fostered the development of its museum into the leading Hellenistic center of learning, but were careful to maintain the distinction of its population's three largest ethnicities: Greek and Egyptian. By the time of Augustus , the city walls encompassed an area of 5. According to Philo of Alexandria , in the year 38 of the Common era, disturbances erupted between Jews and Greek citizens of Alexandria during a visit paid by the Jewish king Agrippa I to Alexandria, principally over the respect paid by the Jewish nation to the Roman emperor, which escalated to open affronts and violence between the two ethnic groups and the desecration of Alexandrian synagogues; the violence was quelled after Caligula intervened and had the Roman governor, removed from the city.

In AD , large parts of Alexandria were destroyed during the Kitos War , which gave Hadrian and his architect, Decriannus , an opportunity to rebuild it. In , the emperor Caracalla visited the city and, because of some insulting satires that the inhabitants had directed at him, abruptly commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms. On 21 July. It is one of the world's largest river deltas—from Alexandria in the west to Port Said in the east, it covers km of Mediterranean coastline and is a rich agricultural region.

From north to south the delta is km in length; the Delta begins down-river from Cairo. The Nile Delta is an area of the world that lacks detailed ground truth data and monitoring stations. Despite the economic importance of the Nile Delta, it could be considered as one of the most data-poor regions with respect to sea level rise.

From north to south, the delta is km in length.

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  • From west to east, it covers some km of coastline; the delta is sometimes divided into sections, with the Nile dividing into two main distributaries , the Damietta and the Rosetta , flowing into the Mediterranean at port cities with the same name. In the past, the delta had several distributaries, but these have been lost due to flood control and changing relief. One such defunct distributary is Wadi Tumilat. The Suez Canal is east of the delta and enters the coastal Lake Manzala in the north-east of the delta. To the north-west are three other coastal lakes or lagoons: Lake Burullus , Lake Idku and Lake Mariout ; the Nile is considered to be an "arcuate" delta, as it resembles a triangle or flower when seen from above.

    Naucratis | Revolvy

    Some scholars such as Aristotle have written that the delta was constructed for agricultural purposes due to the drying of the region of Egypt. Although such an engineering feat would be considered equivalent to a wonder of the ancient world, there is insufficient evidence to determine conclusively whether the delta is man-made or was formed naturally. In modern day, the outer edges of the delta are eroding, some coastal lagoons have seen increasing salinity levels as their connection to the Mediterranean Sea increases. Since the delta no longer receives an annual supply of nutrients and sediments from upstream due to the construction of the Aswan Dam , the soils of the floodplains have become poorer, large amounts of fertilizers are now used.

    Topsoil in the delta can be as much as 21 m in depth. People have lived in the Delta region for thousands of years, it has been intensively farmed for at least the last five thousand years; the Delta used to flood annually. Records from ancient times show that the delta had seven distributaries or branches,: the Pelusiac , the Tanitic, the Mendesian, the Phatnitic , the Sebennytic, the Bolbitine, the Canopic There are now only two main branches, due to flood control and changing relief: the Damietta to the east, the Rosetta in the western part of the Delta; the Rosetta Stone was found in the Nile Delta in in the port city of Rosetta.

    The delta was a major constituent of Lower Egypt. There are many archaeological sites around the Nile Delta. About 39 million people live in the Delta region. Alexandria is the largest city in the delta with an estimated population of more than 4. During autumn, parts of the Nile River are red with lotus flowers. The Lower Nile and the Upper Nile have plants; the Upper Nile plant is the Egyptian lotus, the Lower Nile plant is the Papyrus Sedge , although it is not nearly as plentiful as it once was, is becoming quite rare. Other birds making their homes in the delta include grey herons, Kentish plovers, cormorants and ibises.

    Other animals found in the delta include frogs, tortoises and the Nile monitor. Nile crocodiles and hippopotamus , two animals which were widespread in the delta during antiquity, are no longer found there. Only — mm of rain falls on the delta area during an average year, most of this falls in the winter months. With cooler temperatures and some rain, the Nile Delta region becomes quite humid during the winter months. A 30 cm rise in sea level will affect about 6. The archaeological evidence shows a widespread collapse of Bronze Age civilization in the Eastern Mediterranean world at the outset of the period, as the great palaces and cities of the Mycenaeans were destroyed or abandoned.

    At about the same time, the Hittite civilization suffered serious disruption and cities from Troy to Gaza were destroyed. Following the collapse and smaller settlements suggest famine and depopulation. In Greece , the Linear B writing of the Greek language used by Mycenaean bureaucrats ceased; the decoration on Greek pottery after about BC lacks the figurative decoration of Mycenaean ware and is restricted to simpler geometric styles. It was thought that all contact was lost between mainland Hellenes and foreign powers during this period, yielding little cultural progress or growth, but artifacts from excavations at Lefkandi on the Lelantine Plain in Euboea show that significant cultural and trade links with the east the Levant coast, developed from c.

    Additionally, evidence has emerged of the new presence of Hellenes in sub-Mycenaean Cyprus and on the Syrian coast at Al-Mina. The Mycenaean civilization started to collapse from BC. Archaeology suggests that, around BC, the palace centres and outlying settlements of the Mycenaeans' organized culture began to be abandoned or destroyed, by BC, the recognizable features of Mycenaean culture had disappeared, the population had decreased significantly.

    Many explanations attribute the fall of the Mycenaean civilization and the Bronze Age collapse to climatic or environmental catastrophe, combined with an invasion by Dorians or by the Sea Peoples , or to the widespread availability of edged weapons of iron, but no single explanation fits the available archaeological evidence.

    Around this time large-scale revolts took place in several parts of the eastern Mediterranean , attempts to overthrow existing kingdoms were made as a result of economic and political instability by surrounding people, who were plagued with famine and hardship. Much of the eastern half of the site was already used as farmland before Petrie visited the site. Spencer , 35 and a sketch plan by Griffith of January shows how Petrie divided up the square of the Great Temenos along the walls into areas for excavation Fig.

    While Petrie thus appears to have been fairly certain of the square shape and location of a massive enclosure wall, David Hogarth never succeeded in locating any such structure. Further fieldwork is indispensable for better understanding this area of ancient Naukratis, but already now a reconsideration of existing evidence and some general obser- vations go some way towards answering this question. Second, we need to remember that any large enclosure wall existing over centuries is likely to present a complex archaeological picture, with several phases of walls, cut away and added to in places, partly destroyed and overbuilt.

    Thus, the Great Temenos enclosure wall exactly as mapped by Petrie may indeed be impossible to identify on the ground, not because it is outright fiction, but rather an oversimplification. The southern edge of the lake with a modern road running east—west broadly seems to follow the line of northern wall. A slight rise can be seen in the terrain where the central and eastern sections of the wall once would have stood, with a depression in the area of the northwestern corner of the Temenos possibly due to the removal of sebakh.

    The eastern edge of the village of El Baradany forms a rise that aligns with the western wall of the Temenos and the pylon. Mud-brick walls could be observed in SCA trenches dug by Hakim in the street along this alignment. Also the casemate building, completely levelled between and , has left no traces discernible on the ground today. In spite of the disturbance of the ground by previous excavations and sebbakhin, the area thus still offers clear potential for fieldwork. Magnetometry in concentrated on the central and eastern area of the enclosure Fig.

    Within the eastern Temenos area, features are mostly less clear, but a number of structures are discernible, including a row of pits that may denote an- cient or also more recent archaeological? Much is obscured unfortunately by three modern iron electricity pylons running diagonally across the area and by a path and irrigation ditches Fig.

    A substantial structure in alignment with the pylon, probably displaying at least two phases, with magnetic signatures typical of limestone and mud-brick architecture a large limestone block was found in an irrigation ditch nearby , stands out in the western part of the survey. This could be the large building between the casemate building and the pylon mentioned by Petrie , 24 , but not planned by him,21 or another, earlier structure. Whether it could be part of a temple of Amun-Ra? Neither Coulsen , fields G-S1 and G-S2 nor the British Museum expedition found much pottery in the fields, which may at least in part be explained by the practice of farmers removing sherds from their fields and placing them by the well pump to the north of the Great Temenos.

    Material deposited here and probably deriving from the Great Temenos area and its vicinity includes Late Period Egyptian and much Ptolemaic, with very little Roman or Byzantine material. As the fieldwork was conducted according to modern standards, extensively documented and com- prehensively published, it is indeed possible to reach new interpretations and insights that are very different from the conclusions reached by excavators themselves, purely on the basis of their published documentation.

    Two areas of particular importance are the northwest, where the excavations uncovered structures in a series of ten Ptolemaic phases above an earlier structure that could only be accessed in a small part of the trench, and the southeast trenches, which revealed a substantial, over 3m wide wall aligned east—west Fig. In particular, sherds from trenches 1, 2, and Berlin , —51 fig. Spencer , The argument for this rests on the following observations see also, Table 2. The bottom of the wall of phase 1 was not reached and the edges could not be defined for reasons of limited space and ground water intrusion context It was abutted to the south by a flimsy structure, of which two thin walls were revealed in the excavations , , and Pottery from within the wall and subsequent rebuilds of phases NW 1a and NW 1b dates from the late 7th to 5th century BC, placing this structure in the late Saite or First Persian period Spen- cer , Phase NW 1c also has pottery of 6th to 5th century BC date, though one sherd of a Ptolemaic cooking pot was also found, in pit fill context ibid.

    This may, however, represent contamination or be intrusive, as the subsequent phase NW 2a is also of 6th to 5th century BC date. During Phase NW 2a, the wall , , , , was widened over the ephemeral structure abutting it in phase NW 1a , Leonard suggested a north—south alignment for this wall, despite finding no edge, and despite the alignment of the bricks being east—west. No ancient outer face is preserved here and excavations would be required to locate it. Now at current street level, the lowest visible level of this wall section is 1.

    Thus it is possible that this wall section belongs to the same pre-Ptolemaic period as the wall section discovered by Leonard and that it is even part of the same structure, i. It is subsequently built on in phases NW 3 to NW 10, which are all Ptolemaic occupation levels, as suggested by the excavators Leonard , In addition to the two long mud-brick wall sections on its north face, a Petrie describes the Great Temenos wall as being some 15m wide.

    However, this southern wall may instead represent a different, more southerly phase of temenos wall or a different structure altogether. According to Leonard, the bottom of the wall was reached in trench 12 at 4. The wall was clearly built on un- even ground. Unfortunately the pottery from trenches 12 and 15 was not published Leonard , 26—27, 86—; Coulson and Leonard , —71; cf.

    Spencer , 33 , though said to be of Ptolemaic date Leonard , 92; Coulson and Leonard , , n. The wall in trenches 12 and 15 could thus be explained as a later Ptolemaic temenos wall built over the uneven ground left by a collapsed or dismantled earlier Late Period wall imme- diately to the north, a relatively common feature of Late Period temple precincts that have subsequently been modified Spencer , 24—25; Spencer , fig.

    A later date for this wall seems to be supported also by the partly higher level on which it was built, compared with that of phase NW 1 described above wall , 4mASL, though the bottom was never reached. This hypothesis, and other questions, will need to be tested in future excavations. These other sections of mud-brick may, of course, equally represent different phases or structures as the relationship is concealed by modern rubbish or recent damage. In addition to testing and confirming the effectiveness of the methods employed, import- ant first steps were taken to answer some crucial questions concerning the topography of the ancient site, its stratigraphy and its development.

    For the first time we have an accurate map of the site in which real-world co-ordinates can be given to ancient features, data from previ- ous excavations and surveys can be incorporated and which can serve as the benchmark for any future fieldwork at the site. Magnetometer survey has allowed the likely identification of features under the ground with some known structures and revealed previously unknown features, shedding light in par- ticular on the extent of the ancient town. The area of dense settlement is clearly larger than previously thought, stretching from the likely location as suggested by the magnetometer data of the Canopic river branch at the western edge of town as far as Kom Hadid to the east.

    The ancient cemetery to the north, in the area of the village of Rashwan, must indicate the northern limits of the town, while the southern limits have not yet been determined. Ar- chaeological finds in the village of El Baradany suggest that the town stretched south beyond the Great Temenos. Clearly there was a substantial industrial quarter in the northeast of the site.

    A number of areas could be identified as likely to provide undisturbed archaeological contexts. It suggests that archaeolog- ical evidence does exist for the Egyptian sacred enclosure from the Late Period onwards. In both cases, linking old stratigraphic levels with new GPS data makes it clear that substantial remains of the archae- ological structures are still to be expected under the surface.

    Acknowledgements In addition to those team members and SCA inspectors who participated in the fieldwork see note 2 , we would like to thank A. We are grateful to the British Museum for financial support for this initial season and to the British Academy and Honor Frost Foundation for fieldwork planned in Bibliography Bailey, D. Sebakh, sherds and survey. JEA — Berlin, A. The pottery from the Northwest and North Areas. Leonard ed. Bernand, A. MIFAO Cairo Blue, L. The amphora wharf: The context and construction of Roman amphora instal- lations.

    Peacock and L. Blue eds , 35— Boraik, M. Excavations of the quay and the embankment in front of Karnak temples: Preliminary report. Cahiers de Karnak 65— Cook, R. Amasis and the Greeks in Egypt. Journal of Hellenic Studies — Coulson, W. Ancient Naukratis II. Oxbow Monograph The Naukratis Project Muse 44— Leonard and M. Three seasons of excavation at Naukra- tis. JARCE 74— Earl, G. Site survey. Blue eds , 34— Bietak, M. Lehmann and C. Report on the excavations at Tell el-Dabca Herbich, C. Schweitzer and M. Geophysical survey at Tell el-Dabca.

    Gardner, E. Naukratis II. Sixth Memoir of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Gjerstad, E. Studies in Archaic Greek chronology: Naukratis. Liverpool Annals of Archae- ology and Anthropology 67— Naukratis again. Acta Archaeologica Copenhagen — Hartung, U. Geophysical investigations at Buto Tell el-Farain.

    Medium gray fabric throughout. Fabric black throughout. Occasional sand-sized white grit and micaceous inclusions. Interior slightly mottled to c. No trace of tempering agents. Locus Pottery bag no. Occasional sand-sized mica? Dark gray fabric. Very well- levigated clay. Frequent sand-sized micaceous inclusions. Core over 5 mm : light gray. Sandwich: dark gray. Occasional sand-sized white grit and frequent sand-sized micaceous inclusions. Occasional sand-sized micaceous inclusions and fine straw casts. Field no. Description Beveled Rim Saucers: 1 N. No distinct core. Fabric TN-4A. Eastern Sigillata A Platter: 8 N.

    Fabric: near but lighter than 7. Field r Description This content downloaded from Traces of horizontal burnishing lustrous bands on exterior Very well- levigated clay. Gray core with sandwich of 7. Traces of "burnishing" on exterior of rim. Very well-levigated clay, no visible trace of tempering agents. Core amorphous c. Exceptionally well-levigated. Occasional white grit and sand-sized micaceous inclusions. Core 3 mm c. Sand-sized micaceous inclusions and fine straw casts. Core c. Fabric as sandwich C. Infrequent sand-sized white grit and micaceous inclusions. Occasional white grit to 1 mm.

    Infrequent sand-sized white grit and mica? Black core to 3 mm. Thin sandwich c. Fabric 7. White sand-sized grit to 1 mm, very few mica? Locus Pottery Field Description bag no. Well-levigated clay with infrequent sand-sized white grit and micaceous inclusions. Core thick c. Sandwich as fabric? Interior mottled to light brown. Red core c. Mottled toward 7. Some fine straw casts. Core 7. Very well-levigated clay, occasional sand size white grit and micaceous inclusions. Sand-sized rarely to 1 mm white grit, and sand-sized mica. Red sandwich around gray core. Light gray core c.

    Infrequent sand-sized white grit and fine straw casts, occasional sand-sized micaceous inclusions. Horizontal burnish? Fabric 3. Occasional sand-sized micaceous inclusions. Thick core and fabric as Thin gray sandwich below both surfaces. Dull black exterior. Most of interior fired? Occasional sand-sized grit and micaceous inclusions. A few very fine straw casts. Field Description no. Hemispherical Bowls: N. Occasional sand-sized grit. Out: 7. Fabric X variant.

    Carinated Cups: 3? Well-levigated clay with occasional white grit to 1mm and sand-sized micaceous inclusions. Dark gray throughout. Interior surface as fabric. Sherd abraded but looks as if unslipped. Bottom only slipped c. Fabric IX variant. Delta silt, slipped. Interior plain and exterior covered with white slip no Munsell. Lustrous slip on exterior: 10YR 8. Slip out only: c. Very well-levigated clay, occasional sand-sized white and micaceous inclusions.

    Frequent sand-sized white and micaceous inclusions. Joins with Occasional sand-sized white, and infrequent micaceous inclusions. A few fine straw casts. Core 2. Infrequent white grit and fine straw casts. Thin core mm c. Very well-levigated clay, occasional sand-sized white grit and micaceous inclusions.

    Medium gray fabric. White sand-sized grit and fine straw casts. Sand-sized white grit and a few fine straw casts. Sand- sized white grit and micaceous inclusions, infrequent red grit to c. Sand-sized white grit and some fine straw casts. Slightly mottled to brown on exterior. Occasional sand-sized white grit and frequent micaceous inclusions. Occasional white grit and some fine straw casts. Locus bagno. Interior unslipped? Light gray core to 3 mm sandwiched with 7. Core 2 mm c. Slip out and bottom between 2.

    Interior surface as core. Surfaces slipped? Exterior surface streaky slip 7. Core thin 2. Fabric gray. Slip out c. Interior fired secondarily black. Very hard primary? Core slight c. Fabric 5YR Reddish Yellow.

    • Description:.
    • Gods, People and the Land of Aigina, 800-400 BCE.
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    • Interior surface unslipped as fabric. Traces of horizontal burnishing lustrous bands on exterior. Moderately well-levigated clay. Exterior surface 7. Finger splotches on exterior of base where held when pot was dipped. Volume 55 This content downloaded from Exterior abraded white slip. Very fugitive band of c. Stripe out c. Fabric not described.

      Painted bands. Band 2: c. Delta silt, slipped, Fabric ID. Traces of band of c. Delta silt, slipped Fabric ID. Stripe of c. Red slip and band of 7. Painted band of 7. Band c. Delta silt, slipped Fabric ID variant. Painted 7. Delta silt, slipped Fabric IA variant. Field t Description This content downloaded from Description Folded Lip Casseroles: This content downloaded from Core gray. Rest of surface gray as core. Delta silt, slipped Fabric IC? Faint traces of band of fugitive white "paint" no Munsell at neck. Shiny black out. Exceptionally well-levigated clay with occasional sand- sized micaceous inclusions only.

      Fabric inner 7. Related to Fabric IVC? Gray core and interior, black exterior. Slip out mottled 2. Delta silt, slipped Fabric IA. Description Well-levigated clay with sand-sized micaceous inclusions. Interior fired? Occasional white sand-sized white grit and infrequent sand-sized micaceous inclusions.

      Painted area stripe? Fabric ID variant. Description Folded Rim Jugs: 1 N. Fabric IXA variant? Delta silt, slipped Fabric IA Delta silt, slipped. Exterior plain. Fabric IE variant. Sandwich thin c. Band of 7. Interior drippy slip c. Exterior white slip no Munsell with three bands. Band 2 2. Fabric IE Delta silt, slipped. Fabric IE. Fired 7.

      Fabric IE variant? Exterior slip 7. Fabric IX. Red slip with weak red exterior and c. Fabric IE or IX variant? Description Necked Kraters: 1 N. Fabric ID. Painted band c. Fabric IB. Fabric VB Coarse marl, slipped. String cut base. Fired gray on interior. Coarse marl, slipped Fabric VB This content downloaded from Field t Description Coarse marl, slipped. Description Beaded Rim Amphorae: 1 N. Local imitation. Squared Rim Amphorae: 3 N. Traces of slip on exterior c. Gray core. Sandwich 2. Exterior surface where unslipped 2. Exterior mottled as core colors and to light gray.

      Local amphora rim. Amphora Handle: 9 N. Sandwich c. Core light gray. Slip very thin and splotchy on exterior c. Squared Rim Amphorae: 4 N. Core variegated gray, and 7. Surface slipped? Concave Rim Amphorae: 6 N. Moderately well-levigated clay with white grit mm and fine straw casts. Core black. Well-levigated clay with sand-sized white grit and micaceous inclusions. Moderately well-levigated clay with white and gray grit c. Core completely gray. Moderately well-levigated clay with sand-sized micaceous inclusions and white grit c.

      Lexington: University of Kentucky. Lexington: Univer? Adan-Bayewitz, D. A Study of Local Trade. Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University. Israel Exploration Journal Adriani, A. Amiran, R. Ariel, D. Qedem Bailey, D. Libya Antiqua Supplement 5. Tripoli: Department of Antiquities. Bayer-Niemeier, E.

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      Ancient naukratis excavations at a Greek emporium in egypt part I excavations at Kom Geif.

      Bourriau, J. Catalogue of an exposition. Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum. Catalogue general des antiquites egyptiennes Musee d'Alexandrie nos. Cairo: Institut francaise archeologique orientale. Bergamo: Officine dell'Istituto italiano d'arti grafiche. Rome: Bretschneider. Broneer, O. IV, Pt. II, Terracotta Lamps.

      Princeton: American School of Classical Studies. Bruneau, P. Fascicule XXVI. Paris: Editions E. L'ilot de la Maison des Comediens. Paris: Ecole francaise d'Athenes. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique Bruno, B. Lenoir, D. Manacorda, and C. Collection de l'ecole francaise de Rome Rome: ficole francaise de Rome. Budge, E. New York: Benjamin Bloom.

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      Ancient Naukratis excavations at greek emporium in Egypt, part II the excavations at Kom Hadid.

      Journal of Egyptian Archaeology Cipriano, M. T, and Carre, M. Corbett, P. Hesperia Cotton, M. Rome: British School at Rome. Coulson, W. Part 1: The Survey at Naukratis. Oxbow Mono? Oxford: Oxbow Books. Journal ofField Archaeology 6: Malibu: Undena. Muse American Journal of Archaeology Coulson, W D. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research C, and Rehard, J. W Amphoras from Naukratis and Environs. American Research Center in Egypt Newsletter Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt Courby, F.

      Bibliotheque des ecoles francaises d'Athenes et de Rome. Crowfoot, G. London: Palestine Exploration Fund. Crowfoot, J. Daszewski, W Les lampes egyptiennes d'epoque hellenistique. Les lampes de terre cuite en Mediterrante, eds. Ozoil and A. Travaux de la Maison de TOrient Lyon: Maison de l'Orient. Desbat, A. Collection de Pecole francaise de Rome Dever, W G. Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College. Dore, J. Fulford and M. Society for Libyan Studies, Monograph 1. London: Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies. Dothan, M. The Second and Third Seasons of Excavations , Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority.

      Dray, E. Report ofthe Department of Antiquities, Cyprus, Drower, M. London: Gollancz. Dunand, F. Musee du Louvre, departement des antiquites Egyptiennes. Paris: Reunion des musEes nationaux. Dunbabin, M. Johnson, R. Ling and D. Ann Arbor: Journal of Roman Archaeology. Dupont, P. La parola delpassato Edwards, G. Talcott, B. Philippaki, G. Edwards and V. Hesperia Supplement Emery, W B. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Empereur, J.

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      Ancient Naukratis: Excavations at a Greek Emporium in Egypt, Part 1: Excavations at Kom Geif Ancient Naukratis: Excavations at a Greek Emporium in Egypt, Part 1: Excavations at Kom Geif
      Ancient Naukratis: Excavations at a Greek Emporium in Egypt, Part 1: Excavations at Kom Geif Ancient Naukratis: Excavations at a Greek Emporium in Egypt, Part 1: Excavations at Kom Geif
      Ancient Naukratis: Excavations at a Greek Emporium in Egypt, Part 1: Excavations at Kom Geif Ancient Naukratis: Excavations at a Greek Emporium in Egypt, Part 1: Excavations at Kom Geif
      Ancient Naukratis: Excavations at a Greek Emporium in Egypt, Part 1: Excavations at Kom Geif Ancient Naukratis: Excavations at a Greek Emporium in Egypt, Part 1: Excavations at Kom Geif
      Ancient Naukratis: Excavations at a Greek Emporium in Egypt, Part 1: Excavations at Kom Geif Ancient Naukratis: Excavations at a Greek Emporium in Egypt, Part 1: Excavations at Kom Geif
      Ancient Naukratis: Excavations at a Greek Emporium in Egypt, Part 1: Excavations at Kom Geif Ancient Naukratis: Excavations at a Greek Emporium in Egypt, Part 1: Excavations at Kom Geif
      Ancient Naukratis: Excavations at a Greek Emporium in Egypt, Part 1: Excavations at Kom Geif Ancient Naukratis: Excavations at a Greek Emporium in Egypt, Part 1: Excavations at Kom Geif
      Ancient Naukratis: Excavations at a Greek Emporium in Egypt, Part 1: Excavations at Kom Geif Ancient Naukratis: Excavations at a Greek Emporium in Egypt, Part 1: Excavations at Kom Geif
      Ancient Naukratis: Excavations at a Greek Emporium in Egypt, Part 1: Excavations at Kom Geif Ancient Naukratis: Excavations at a Greek Emporium in Egypt, Part 1: Excavations at Kom Geif

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