If we tune correctly, no notes or harmonies stick out as startlingly out-of-tune. We are not merely avoiding error, but also revealing the music's character. It emerges as beautiful, brilliant, and expressive: powerful in the right spots, and gentle in the right spots.
The right temperament to match the music makes the instrument sound at its best. Which of Johann Sebastian Bach's music most readily causes improperly-balanced temperaments to fail, bringing unprepared harsh sounds into the texture? The G major sinfonia, with only one sharp in the signature, needs a good D and A.
The book as a whole needs 25 different pitch classes, with plenty of emphasis on Db, Ab, D , A , E , and B : notes that are problematic in other circulating temperaments Werckmeister, Vallotti, et al. The D minor sinfonia is analyzed further at the meantone page , and in this video presentation. The Toccatas BWV , especially , all of which are from at the latest.
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Bach was already writing this wildly adventurous music in his 20s, needing all kinds of enharmonic swaps within each composition. The Allemande is full of exposed 10ths and 17ths on strong beats, with Ab or Db in the bass: the two-voiced texture makes these intervals sound remarkably sour if those notes are tuned too low. However, I do not agree with his excerpting to play the staccato-chord portions in isolation and then to claim: "The other two excerpts show how Bach remained cautious in his use of Db-major triads and, though to a rather lesser extent, of Ab-major triads.
The staccato marks are due to the composer. The excerpting to staccato parts happens to fit an oft-reused Lindley hypothesis , in multiple articles of his, that the Db-F ought to be the widest major 3rd in a Bach temperament, and that Bach somehow finessed around them compositionally Coburn, Steven. Preludes and Fugues 6 , transcription for piano after J. Bach , S.
Fantasia super: Valet will ich dir geben, BWV 735
The St John Passion is the only extant other one that is certainly composed by Bach. The libretto of the St Mark Passion was published in Bach's time, allowing reconstruction based on the pieces Bach is known to have parodied for its composition, while the extant St Luke Passion likely contains little or no music composed by Bach.
Which Bach compositions, apart from the known ones, may have been meant in the obituary remains uncertain. The Neumeister Collection is a compilation of 82 chorale preludes found in a manuscript copy produced by Johann Gottfried Neumeister — When the manuscript was rediscovered at the Yale University in the s it appeared to contain 31 previously unknown early chorale settings by Johann Sebastian Bach, which were added to the BWV catalogue as Nos.
History Neumeister compiled his manuscript after Bach's early years. The court chapel at the Schloss in Weimar where Bach was court organist. The plan was for a collection of settings of chorale tunes sung during the Church year so that each part of the year was represented. Each setting takes an existing Lutheran chorale, adds a motivic accompaniment, and quite freely explores form. Many of the preludes are shor. A page from the so-called Tenbury Manuscripts, currently housed at the Bodleian Library.
Possibly created by Pachelbel himself, they contain some of his finest late vocal works. They are also among the very few manuscripts ever identified as possible autographs by the composer. Approximately compositions have been attributed to Johann Pachelbel. As of , no standard numbering system exists for Pachelbel's work. Welter, For organ works, POP catalogue numbers are provided, from catalogue by Antoine Bouchard for his — recording of Pachelbel's organ oeuvre this catalogue only covers organ works.
Perreault numbers are used as the basis of the list, making individual sections organized alphabetically i. This piece is arguably one of the most famous pieces among guitarists. Bach" that has written "aufs Lauten. List of organ compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach. Preface in English and German. Williams , — Williams , Pedal-Exercitium fragment BWV at www. Perreault , December List of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach topic Canon triplex a 6: first printed in below , it appears on both versions of the portrait Haussmann made of Bach , — above.
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List of fugal works by Johann Sebastian Bach topic This page lists the fugal works of Johann Sebastian Bach, defined here as the fugues, fughettas, and canons, as well as other works containing fugal expositions but not denoted as fugues, such as some choral sections of the Mass in B minor, the St Matthew Passion, the St John Passion, and the cantatas. Whether or not a work was select Folders related to List of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach printed during his lifetime: Lists of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. List of transcriptions of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach topic Johann Sebastian Bach's music has often been transcribed for other instruments.
Despite a profusion of educated guesswork, there is not much that can be said with certainty about the first century of the composition's existence other than t Folders related to Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV Listen template using plain parameter Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Halloween compositions Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Toccatas Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Once the Count mentioned Folders related to Goldberg Variations: Compositions for solo piano Revolvy Brain revolvybrain compositions Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Compositions for harpsichord Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Partita for Violin No. Folders related to Partita for Violin No. The primary difference between the two collections is that the notebook contains works only by Johann Sebastian Bach including most of the French Suites , while the notebook is a compilation of music by both Bac Folders related to Notebook for Anna Magdalena Bach: German manuscripts Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Lists of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Polonaises Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
Johann Pachelbel topic Johann Pachelbel baptised 1 September  — buried 9 March  was a German composer, organist, and teacher who brought the south German organ schools to their peak. He preferred a lucid, uncomplicated contrap Folders related to Johann Pachelbel: 17th-century German composers Revolvy Brain revolvybrain German Baroque composers Revolvy Brain revolvybrain 18th-century German composers Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
List of compositions for organ topic The following is a list of compositions for organ from the Western tradition of classical organ music. List of motets by Johann Sebastian Bach topic Bach's autograph of the motet Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied, BWV It is uncertain how many motets Johann Sebastian Bach composed, because some have been lost, and there are some doubtful attributions among the surviving ones associated with him.
Neumeister Collection topic The Neumeister Collection is a compilation of 82 chorale preludes found in a manuscript copy produced by Johann Gottfried Neumeister — List of compositions by Johann Pachelbel topic A page from the so-called Tenbury Manuscripts, currently housed at the Bodleian Library. Revolvy Site Map.
Name of the chorale prelude , by J. Bach unless otherwise indicated. Work page at Bach Digital website. Number of the composition in the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis. Zahn number of the hymn tune used in the chorale prelude. Description of the Lutheran hymn or tune. Ach bleib bei uns, Herr Jesu Christ. Ach Gott, tu dich erbarmen. Ach Gott und Herr. Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh darein. Ach, was ist doch unser Leben.
Allein zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ. Jesu, der du meine Seele. Als Jesus Christus in der Nacht. Auf meinen lieben Gott by J. Wo soll ich fliehen hin. Aus der Tiefe rufe ich by C. Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir. Christ, der du bist der helle Tag. Christe, du Lamm Gottes. Christ ist erstanden.
Ach, Gott und Herr – Bach
Christ lag in Todesbanden. Christum wir sollen loben schon. Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam. Christus, der ist mein Leben. Christus, der uns selig macht. Da Jesus an dem Kreuze stund. Das alte Jahr vergangen ist. Das Jesulein soll doch mein Trost. Der Tag, der ist so freudenreich. Dies sind die heilgen zehn Gebot. Dies sind die heiligen zehen Gebot. Durch Adams Fall ist ganz verderbt. Ehre sei dir Christe, der du leidest Not. Ein feste Burg ist Erbarm dich mein, o Herre Gott.
Erhalt uns Herr, bei deinem Wort. Erschienen ist der herrliche Tag. Erstanden ist der heilge Christ. Es ist das Heil uns kommen her. Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ. Gelobet seist du, Gottes Sohn ist kommen. Gott ist mein Heil, mein Hilf und Trost. Herr Christ, der ein'ge Gottes Sohn. Herr Gott, dich loben wir. Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend. Herr Jesu Christ, meins Lebens Licht. Herzlich lieb hab ich dich, o Herr. Herzlich tut mich verlangen. Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du Heut triumphieret Gottes Sohn.
Hilf Gott, dass mir's gelinge. Ich hab mein Sach Gott heimgestellt. Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ. In dich hab ich gehoffet, Herr. In dir ist Freude. In dulci jubilo. Jesu, meine Freude. The list includes both extant cantatas and, as far as known, lost cantatas. It is sortable by the cantata number which equals the number in the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis BWV , by title, by occasion during the liturgical year, the year of composition and date of first performance, as far as known.
The scoring is provided, grouped by singers and groups of instruments. Colouring shows which cantatas are not extant church cantatas and which works were not even composed by Bach, but attributed to him in the past. Abbreviations The abbreviations of performers are given for solo singers, choir typically SATB , brass instruments plus timpa.
His harpsichord concertos are mostly adaptations of concertos originally written for other solo instruments. His Italian Concerto, for two-manual harpsichord, was published in Early encounters with the concerto genre The earliest documentary traces of Bach's involvement with the concerto genre include: In Bach helped copy out the performance parts of a concerto by Georg Philipp Telemann Around or earlier Bach copied the continuo part, BWV Anh.
Most of the. The piece opens with a toccata section, followed by a fugue that ends in a coda. It is one of the most famous works in the organ repertoire. Scholars differ as to when it was composed. It could have been as early as c. To a large extent the piece conforms to the characteristics deemed typical for the north German organ school of the baroque era with divergent stylistic influences, such as south German characteristics. Despite a profusion of educated guesswork, there is not much that can be said with certainty about the first century of the composition's existence other than t.
Since the 19th-century Bach Revival he has been generally regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Western art musical canon. They are sometimes referred to in English as the sonatas and partias for solo violin in accordance with Bach's headings in the autograph manuscript: "Partia" plural "Partien" was commonly used in German-speaking regions during Bach's time, whereas the Italian "partita" was introduced to this set in the Bach Gesellschaft edition, having become standard by that time.
The set was completed by but was not published until by Nikolaus Simrock in Bonn. Even after publication, it was largely ignored until the celebrated violinist Joseph Joachim started performing these works. Today, Bach's Sonatas and Partitas are an essential part of the violin repertoire, and they are frequently performed and reco. Most of them are also spiritual, i. The best known of these, "Bist du bei mir", was however not composed by Bach.
An aria by Bach was rediscovered in the 21st century, and was assigned the number BWV The second Anhang of the BWV catalogue also lists a few songs of doubtful authenticity. First published in , the work is one of the most important examples of the variation form.
It is named after Johann Gottlieb Goldberg, who may also have been the first performer of the work. Composition The tale of how the variations came to be composed comes from an early biography of Bach by Johann Nikolaus Forkel: [For this work] we have to thank the instigation of the former Russian ambassador to the electoral court of Saxony, Count Kaiserling, who often stopped in Leipzig and brought there with him the aforementioned Goldberg, in order to have him given musical instruction by Bach. The Count was often ill and had sleepless nights. At such times, Goldberg, who lived in his house, had to spend the night in an antechamber, so as to play for him during his insomnia.
Once the Count mentioned. The harpsichord concertos, BWV —, are concertos for harpsichord, strings and continuo by Johann Sebastian Bach. There are seven complete concertos for a single harpsichord BWV — , three concertos for two harpsichords BWV — , two concertos for three harpsichords BWV and , and one concerto for four harpsichords BWV Two other concertos include solo harpsichord parts: the concerto BWV , which has solo parts for harpsichord, violin and flute, and Brandenburg Concerto No.
In addition, there is a nine-bar concerto fragment for harpsichord BWV which adds an oboe to the strings and continuo. In many cases, only the harpsichord version has survived. They are among the first concertos for keyboard instrument ever written. He composed it in Leipzig in for Ratswechsel, the annual inauguration of a new town council, and first performed it on 27 August of that year.
The cantata was part of a festive service in the Nikolaikirche. The cantata text by an unknown author includes in movement 2 the beginning of Psalm 75, and as the closing chorale the fifth stanza of Johann Gramann's "Nun lob, mein Seel, den Herren".
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Bach scored the work in eight movements for four vocal parts and a festive Baroque orchestra of three trumpets, timpani, two oboes, strings, an obbligato organ and basso continuo. The organ dominates the first movement Sinfonia which Bach derived from a Partita for violin. The full orchestra accompanies the first choral movement and plays with the voices in the closing chorale, while a sequence of three arias alternating with two recitatives is scored intimately.
Bach used the music from the. It is a part of his compositional cycle called Sonatas and Partitas for Solo Violin. Structure The partita contains five movements, given in Italian as: Allemanda Corrente Sarabanda Giga Ciaccona Except for the ciaccona, the movements are dance types of the time, and they are frequently listed by their French names: Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, Gigue, and Chaconne.
The final movement is written in the form of variations, and lasts approximately as long as the first four movements combined. Performance time of the whole partita varies between 26 and 32 minutes, depending on the approach and style of the performer. Interesting facts Professor Helga Thoene suggests that this partita, and especially its last movement, was a tombeau written in memory of Bach's first wife, Maria Barbara Bach who died in , though this theory is controversial.
It is considered Bach's most significant and extensive work for organ, containing some of his most musically complex and technically demanding compositions for that instrument. In its use of modal forms, motet-style and canons, it looks back to the religious music of masters of the stile antico, such as Frescobaldi, Palestrina, Lotti and Caldara. At the same time, Bach was forward-looking, incorporating and distilling modern baroque musical forms, such as the French-style chorale.
The chorale preludes range from compositions for single keyboa. The second complete edition includes some discoveries made since , but there are relatively few such scores. The significance of the NBE lies more in its incorporation of the latest scholarship. Unlike most other organ preludes and fugues of Bach, the autograph fair copy of the score survives.
The opening theme is followed by contrasting fugal episodes. The works form an encyclopedic collection of large-scale chorale preludes, in a variety of styles harking back to the previous century, that Bach gradually perfected during his career. The organ loft is visible at the top of the picture. Early versions of almost all the chorale preludes are thought to date back to —, during the period — when Bach served as court organist and Konzertmeister director of music in Weimar, at the court of Wilhelm Ernst, Duke of Saxe-W.
This page of the notebook contains the gavotte from French Suite No. Keyboard music minuets, rondeaux, polonaises, chorales, sonatas, preludes, musettes, marches, gavottes makes up most of both notebooks, and a few pieces for voice songs, and arias are included.
The Notebooks provide a glimpse into the domestic music of the 18th century and the musical tastes of the Bach family. History The two notebooks are known by their title page dates of and The title "Anna Magdalena notebook" is commonly used to refer to the latter. The primary difference between the two collections is that the notebook contains works only by Johann Sebastian Bach including most of the French Suites , while the notebook is a compilation of music by both Bac. Bach works catalogue; German: is a catalogue of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach. It was first published in , edited by Wolfgang Schmieder.
The catalogue's second edition appeared in An abbreviated version of that second edition, known as BWV2a, was published in BWV numbers were assigned to 1, compositions in the 20th century, and more have been added to the catalogue. The Anhang Anh. History The BWV is a thematic catalogue, thus it identifies every movement of every composition by its first measures, like the opening of BWV , movement 2 Loure above The first edition of the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis was published in It allocated a unique number to every known composition by Bach.
Wolfgang Schmieder, the editor of that catalogue, grouped the compositions by genre, largely following the 19th-century Bach Gesellschaft BG edition for the collation e. Bach was an influential composer working at a time of transition between his father's Baroque style and the Classical style that followed it. His personal approach, an expressive and often turbulent one known as empfindsamer Stil or 'sensitive style', applied the principles of rhetoric and drama to musical structures.
Bach's dynamism stands in deliberate contrast to the more mannered galant style also then in vogue. Bach was known as the "Berlin Bach" during his. Despite his acknowledged genius as an organist, improviser and composer, his income and employment were unstable and he died in poverty. Biography Wilhelm Friedemann hereafter Friedemann was born in Weimar, where his father was employed as organist and chamber musician to the Duke of Saxe-Weimar.
Bach supervised Friedemann's musical education and career with great attention. The graded course of keyboard studies and composition that J. The Ricercar a 6, a six-voice fugue which is regarded as the high point of the entire work, was put forward by the musicologist Charles Rosen as the most significant piano composition in history partly because it is one of the first. Bach accompanying him on a harpsichord-shaped piano by Gottfried Silbermann.
The collection has its roots in a meet. It is thought that most of the transcriptions were probably made in — Their publication by C. Johann Sebastian Bach was a court musician in Weimar from to Most of these transcriptions were based on. It is scored for five vocal parts two sopranos, alto, tenor and bass , and a Baroque orchestra including trumpets and timpani.
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It is the first major liturgical composition on a Latin text by Bach. For a performance at Christmas he inserted four hymns laudes related to that feast. This version, including the Christmas interpolations, was given the number Johann Pachelbel baptised 1 September  — buried 9 March  was a German composer, organist, and teacher who brought the south German organ schools to their peak.
He composed a large body of sacred and secular music, and his contributions to the development of the chorale prelude and fugue have earned him a place among the most important composers of the middle Baroque era. Today, Pachelbel is best known for the Canon in D, as well as the Chaconne in F minor, the Toccata in E minor for organ, and the Hexachordum Apollinis, a set of keyboard variations. He preferred a lucid, uncomplicated contrap. At least five preludes of the compilation are transcribed from movements in Bach's church cantatas, mostly chorale cantatas he had composed around two decades earlier.
These six chorales provide an app. The work was one of Bach's last compositions, not completed until , the year before his death. Much of the Mass gave new form to vocal music that Bach had composed throughout his career, dating back in the case of the Crucifixus to , but extensively revised.
To complete the work, in the late s Bach composed new sections of the Credo such as Et incarnatus est. It was unusual for composers working in the Lutheran tradition to compose a Missa tota and Bach's motivations remain a matter of scholarly debate. The Mass was never performed in its entirety during Bach's lifetime; the first documented complete performance took place in Since the nineteenth century it has been widely hailed as one of the greatest compositions in musical history, and today it is frequently performed and recorded.
Presumably composed early in Bach's career, it is one of his most important and well-known works, and an important influence on 19th and 20th century passacaglias: Robert Schumann described the variations of the passacaglia as "intertwined so ingeniously that one can never cease to be amazed.
Related Ach Gott und Herr, canon, BWV714
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